# How to debug a modelΒΆ

There are various levels on which to debug a model. One of the simplest is to just print out the values that different variables are taking on.

Because `PyMC3`

uses `Theano`

expressions to build the model, and
not functions, there is no way to place a `print`

statement into a
likelihood function. Instead, you can use the `Theano`

`Print`

operatator. For more information, see: theano Print operator for this
before:
http://deeplearning.net/software/theano/tutorial/debug_faq.html#how-do-i-print-an-intermediate-value-in-a-function.

Let’s build a simple model with just two parameters:

```
In [1]:
```

```
%matplotlib inline
import pymc3 as pm
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import seaborn as sns
import pandas as pd
import theano.tensor as T
x = np.random.randn(100)
with pm.Model() as model:
mu = pm.Normal('mu', mu=0, sd=1)
sd = pm.Normal('sd', mu=0, sd=1)
obs = pm.Normal('obs', mu=mu, sd=sd, observed=x)
step = pm.Metropolis()
trace = pm.sample(5000, step)
pm.traceplot(trace);
```

```
[-----------------100%-----------------] 5000 of 5000 complete in 0.8 sec
```

Hm, looks like something has gone wrong, but what? Let’s look at the
values getting proposed using the `Print`

operator:

```
In [2]:
```

```
with pm.Model() as model:
mu = pm.Normal('mu', mu=0, sd=1)
sd = pm.Normal('sd', mu=0, sd=1)
mu_print = T.printing.Print('mu')(mu)
sd_print = T.printing.Print('sd')(sd)
obs = pm.Normal('obs', mu=mu_print, sd=sd_print, observed=x)
step = pm.Metropolis()
trace = pm.sample(3, step) # Make sure not to draw too many samples
```

```
mu __str__ = 0.0
sd __str__ = 0.0
sd __str__ = -1.4315792219864252
mu __str__ = 0.0
sd __str__ = 0.0
sd __str__ = 0.0
mu __str__ = 1.3615472322158946
mu __str__ = 0.0
sd __str__ = 0.5322478998286673
mu __str__ = 0.0
sd __str__ = 0.0
sd __str__ = 0.0
mu __str__ = -1.2753319093167306
mu __str__ = 0.0
sd __str__ = -0.4843153880482674
mu __str__ = 0.0
sd __str__ = 0.0
sd __str__ = 0.0
mu __str__ = -0.4478412022208693
mu __str__ = 0.0
[-----------------100%-----------------] 3 of 3 complete in 0.0 sec
```

Looks like `sd`

is always `0`

which will cause the logp to go to
`-inf`

. Of course, we should not have used a prior that has negative
mass for `sd`

but instead something like a `HalfNormal`

.

We can also redirect the output to a string buffer and access the proposed values later on (thanks to Lindley Lentati for providing this example):

```
In [9]:
```

```
from io import StringIO
import sys
x = np.random.randn(100)
old_stdout = sys.stdout
sys.stdout = mystdout = StringIO()
with pm.Model() as model:
mu = pm.Normal('mu', mu=0, sd=1)
sd = pm.Normal('sd', mu=0, sd=1)
mu_print = T.printing.Print('mu')(mu)
sd_print = T.printing.Print('sd')(sd)
obs = pm.Normal('obs', mu=mu_print, sd=sd_print, observed=x)
step = pm.Metropolis()
trace = pm.sample(3, step) # Make sure not to draw too many samples
sys.stdout = old_stdout
output = mystdout.getvalue().split('\n')
mulines = [s for s in output if 'mu' in s]
muvals = [line.split()[-1] for line in mulines]
plt.plot(np.arange(0,len(muvals)), muvals);
plt.xlabel('proposal iteration')
plt.ylabel('mu value')
```

```
Out[9]:
```

```
<matplotlib.text.Text at 0x7f3f1a9f5ba8>
```